Today I would like to appreciate Michaela…

…for allowing me to come and see a splendid school in all of its glory.

Before I go any further, this whole post comes with a huge caveat – this will not do the day justice. You must try and arrange to see the school if time allows.

After meeting Dani Quinn (@danicquinn), a couple of months ago, I was keen to see how maths is taught at Michaela and have a look at their ethos which some may feel is a direct opposite to Wellington. The day started with the students enjoying lunch time and I was immediately struck by the level of interaction of students and staff. Students were happy to converse and allow staff to join conversations freely. At the end of the play time came the first real sign of the expectations set. A member of staff quickly had the students lining up in silence and all were clear on the rules and what was expected of them. This preceded a silent walk into the lunch hall where I sat with a group of students at a university-labelled table (a great way of inspiring children, I think). I was amazed that these year 7 pupils knew about universities and had great ideas about which universities they wanted to go to and which subject they may consider studying. From just twenty minutes at school, I was stunned by the levels expected from the pupils. This expectation can only have  a positive effect on the school.

During lunch, a member of staff read out merits and demerits from the last day in a no-nonsense fashion. These students have been rewarded and these students have not met our expectation. After this, we were told the topic for the day and that is what our table was to discuss while eating. Five year 7 and 8 pupils plus myself went on to talk about punctuality and why it was important not to be late and what we can do to stop ourselves. I thoroughly enjoyed the conversation and the students should be applauded on their welcoming and challenging conversational skills. After a donut for dessert, students were invited to show their appreciation for anyone in their life – mainly teachers or others in the school. The duty staff would then offer very specific feedback on how this was done e.g. “that is worthy of reward because you projected very well and it was meaningful” or  “if you want a reward next time, make sure to annunciate every word”. Clear, specific feedback throughout the school. Everyone is on message.

Two students greeted us and took us around the school where we were allowed in and out of lessons freely without students or staff batting an eyelid. It was here that I was struck by the quality of teaching at this school. I saw about 5 minutes of a French lesson, some of a Physics lesson, some Art and some maths. In all classrooms, students work was put first. The school may well believe in teacher at front, student at desk but there is also a clear ethos that students must be doing work to learn. The behaviour culture allows for clear boundaries and allows teachers to positively reward great learning habits e.g. sitting up and following a solution very well or tackling a problem straight away. It does also allow for negatives to be enforced quickly e.g. turning around but across my afternoon, there was far more specific, positive praise than negativity.

Each teacher ensured pupil participation was high and there were lots of questions asked across all the classrooms. Teachers involved each student and if something was not quite right, time was taken to correct before moving forward. There is a clear expectation academically as well as behaviourally. I was thoroughly impressed by the level shown by all students. All activities used were activities that students wanted to engage with. Students could see that the teacher wanted them to know what to do so they trust that there is a purpose in what they are doing.

After popping in and out of random lessons, I watched a full lesson with Dani to finish the day. This followed a similar pattern: lots of pupil involvement; great questioning from the teacher; constant assessment of and for learning as well as a chance for lots of success. I did not see Dani using a drill but I got to see a little into her teaching philosophy which will certainly have an impact on my own practice. I found that students did a lot of practice of specific questions and anyone who needed more got that opportunity too. Dani (and the other teachers) kept up the idea of specific feedback on all activities too. In maths, the feedback was even more specific owing quite a lot to the nature of the activities. All of them allowed Dani to quickly work out what the misconception was and then address that. This is certainly something I will be taking into my own lessons – particularly during revision time.

Unfortunately I had to rush off before talking to Dani at the end but I would like to thank her very much for the chat we had and for allowing me to see into her lesson. I had a brilliant afternoon and I very much look forward to going back to see some in the future in the maths department. I also hope to get Dani over to Wellington to have a look at how we do maths and where the similarities may lie even if the surface looks/sounds very different.

Overall, I think that Michaela are doing brilliant things. Students enjoy school, they want to succeed and everybody takes pride in themselves and their school. This is a great achievement by all involved. Expecting the best (“double the minimum”) and reenforcing this message means that students push themselves and have a positive attitude towards this test. I would like to look more into the effect that extrinsically motivating young children can bring about intrinsic motivation as this is something I had an opinion on before but after yesterday, I wonder whether all students can actually generate their own high standards after being held to them by punishments and rewards for a number of years. Certainly, all students I met in an informal setting (lunch, after school) were very polite, interesting and proud. All values that Michaela School has.

I would like to appreciate Michaela for letting me in for the afternoon, for showing me that great teaching relies on a great attitude to teaching and for setting a high expectation of all students.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Today I would like to appreciate Michaela…

The three keys of intrinsic motivation

At the end of 2009, Daniel H. Pink wrote a book entitled “Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us”. You can find him talking about his vision here. Within this book, Pink argues that businesses are not acting upon what we know about the human brain and what psychologists have known for a long time about motivation. The key message being that rewards and extrinsic motivators only increase productivity for straight-forward tasks. In other situations, these motivators may actually inhibit creativity.

It is impossible to read the book as an educator without thinking about its impact upon the classroom and the little things we do in order to create an intrinsically motivated culture. I am particularly interested in this to discuss the impact that written and oral feedback can have as well as our questioning in the classroom.

Pink proposes there are three things to strive for in order to promote intrinsic motivation:

  1. AUTONOMY – “the right or condition of self-government”
  2. MASTERY – “comprehensive knowledge or skill in a particular activity”
  3. PURPOSE – “the reason for which something is done”

In the classroom, students will be motivated if they focus on these three areas. In particular, teachers can direct student focus to these three things through their feedback and questioning. Sarah Donarski has written a blog relating specifically to feedback and its motivational responses – I will try and take some ideas further, specifically in the context of Pink’s trio.

Autonomy

Autonomy in the classroom can take multiple forms. Pink argues that autonomy will improve engagement and will take over from compliance in the workplace – the same can be said of the classroom. With a truly autonomous student, a teacher can be confident that there is a prominence of engagement and a desire to carry out actions because they want to do them. Jang, Reeve and Ryan found in 2005 that high autonomy was one of the most important characteristics of a “satisfying” learning experience and low autonomy had an even more negative effect on the experience.

The question then remains – how do we promote autonomy in our classrooms? Educators can create situations which require autonomy as much as possible. For example, an activity might require students to make a choice at the start and justify. We also must ensure our tasks are challenging enough that students want to engage with them. As students progress through school and are more skilled at making decisions, we may also set tasks which allow for preference and encourage students to think about why they are making these decisions to choose which activity. We cannot let the classroom become a free-for-all but we can slowly introduce these ideas as students are ready for them. The same can be said for classroom dialogue. Teachers can be flexible and allow a more “free” classroom.

With a feedback hat on, which feedback allows autonomy to grow? Specific feedback with some ideas on how to improve on these specific topics in the classroom give this chance. Darren Carter (@mrcartermaths) has spoken previously about his homework (or lack thereof) “policy” and it strikes me that this is a great way to inspire intrinsic motivation. Of course we know better than the students about what they should improve and how they can go about doing this. This information should still be shared but we are allowing them to decide what to do and explaining why (which encroaches upon number 3). Spend time with students showing them excellent online resources; picking a specific chapter in a specific book or write some feedforward questions which allow immediate improvement. There is no expectancy of completion but all students realise that being active with feedback will result in improvement. Thus an intrinsically motivated action has some extrinsic reward also.

 

Mastery

This is particularly prevalent at the moment in the mathematics world but in this discussion, we are not talking about deeper knowledge about less subjects – we are interested in the idea that students feel better at a specific discipline. All children want to be really good at stuff – this is not up for debate – whether it is maths, English, sport, dance whatever. Everybody wants to be good. Teachers must tap into this innate part of a student’s make-up. How can we do this through feedback? We must be positive and we must be specific with this praise. See below for a tweet from Ben Ward I saw this week (@mrbenward).

“We remember criticism because it is specific and personal.

Whereas encouragement is general [so it] washes over us.

Aim for ‘precision praise'”

I love the idea of precision praise. It is a big part of sports coaching and every course I have been on in this domain has focused heavily on generic praise and its pitfalls (namely that nobody acts on it and it is wasted energy). Precise praise can mean a student knows they are further along the journey in mastering a topic than they were before. Specific praise on something you have asked them to improve in the past will have the added bonus of showing them that their choice of work has worked and been recognised (their autonomy is improving too). Too much praise can be a negative but using praise in the right scenario in a very specific context will improve student’s internal motivation and reaffirm their belief in themselves.

In Sarah’s blog, she examines the idea of a positivity bias in which students focus on the good things you say or see overly positive messages in circumstances which might not be wholly positive.  She proposes that this can be a good thing for students and again specific, precise praise can let a student know that there is positives in what they are doing. This can only be a good thing at all ends of attainment.

 

Purpose

How many times have we heard “When will I ever use this?” about almost everything taught in the maths classroom? The answer of course is that almost everyone will not use the sine rule nor the area of a trapezium nor differentiating trigonometric functions from first principles outside of their maths lesson. In much the same way that students will not analyse the meter of a poem many times after GCSE English nor testing the pH of something. The point that students aren’t getting is that all of these should be ends in themselves. Carl Hendrick (@c_hendrick) has written a piece recently looking at the idea that education should not be a vehicle to prepare us for what comes after school. At the end he writes,

“Students should study Shakespeare not because of what job it might get them but because it’s an anthropological guidebook that tells them how to live.”

This same sentiment should be held by teachers in all subjects. You are not learning about pi because it will help you in some 21st century job yet to be created, you are learning about pi and its place in history because it shows you something remarkable which was at one point undiscovered. Yes, you will be able to use google maps to tell you how far away something is – that isn’t why we teach triangles but you should have some appreciation of size, number and shape. It is important that teachers highlight this purpose throughout all of their feedback and discussion. Teachers must live the idea that everything taught is purposeful and should not find themselves justifying existence. 

Moving forwards, I aim to incorporate these three ideas of internal motivation through all my student interaction. Any feedback given should look to promote at least one of these areas. Remember that feedback should be more work for the receiver than the giver. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The three keys of intrinsic motivation